Abstracts

Thursday, June 2

Plenary Session 9:45-10:30

Krista Vogelberg

University of Tartu, Estonia, krista.vogelbergut.ee

Models of communication and their implications for LSP teaching

The way we teach language, inter alia language for specific purposes, is profoundly informed by our (often implicit) views of how language and communication work. Developing research into the nature of communication has opened up new perspectives towards language teaching. The talk will seek to provide generalised theoretical underpinnings for a number of the papers to be presented at the conference as well as offer additional ideas for expanding and transforming LSP methodology.

 

Parallel Sessions 11:00-12:00

Track 1

Developing interculturuality through specialized content

Agnieszka Krężlewicz, agnieszka.krezlewiczgmail.com

Warsaw University, Poland

In the present post-method situation, ELT has become increasingly sensitive to the issue of culture. However, “this concept has been defined so broadly that it cannot fill the gap left by the retreat from methodology” (Sowden 2007: 304). Culture in language education has often been conflated with ‘nation’ (Risager, 2007). However, the shared practices and perspectives that constitute cultural participation can be rooted not only in regional, ethnic, or religious affiliations but also in subcultural groups that are defined by their practices (e.g. lawyers, applied linguists, surfers, doctors). In an age of globalization, even small cultural groups may be transnational in scope (McKay, 2002; Risager, 2007).

A number of pedagogical works have recommended implementing cultural content, through applying specialized discourse with the goal of developing interculturality—the ability to see cultural issues from multiple perspectives. This paper aims at presenting a contrastive analysis of two educational approaches:  English for Specific Purposes (ESP) vs. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), as well as their perceived potential for culture teaching and learning. The aim is to give rise to reflective thinking and present some input to the different possibilities of improving the process of learning culture through application of ESP and CLIL methods.

References:

McKay, S. L. (2002). Teaching English as an international language: Rethinking goals

and approaches. Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Risager, K. (2007). Language and culture pedagogy: From a national to a

transnational paradigm. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Sowden, C. (2007). Culture and the ‘good teacher’ in the English Language classroom.

ELT Journal 61(4): 304-310.

Content Integrated English Language –Teaching Academic Language

Alice Ying Nie, alice.niegmail.com

U.S.Department of State English Language Fellow, Budapest, Hungary

If the purpose of language education is communicative language, then content teaching is the means of achieving that goal.  My workshop proposal will first look at the research behind content teaching and why it has been proven to maximize second language acquisition.  I will then discuss content teaching methodologies. 

Most linguists will agree that the natural process of language development does not happen in isolation but through a process of understanding the socio-cultural surroundings.   Traditionally, second language education is taught in isolation where the focus was on grammar.  Research has since found that language is learned most effectively for communication and purposeful social interactions.  The merging of purposeful meaning with language allows for the student grasp onto a tangible topic not only helping to further language development but also cognitive development.   Cummins discusses this idea of content language learning by separating language tasks as either context reduced or context embedded.  Context reduced tasks lacks meaning for communication and is not cognitively challenging.  On the other hand, context embedded tasks provides meaning for communication and requires in depth analysis.  Merging content with language education requires students to not only learn the content information but to develop Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).  The academic application of the language being learned makes the language useful and applicable allowing for greater retention of the language.   Past research has also shown that English Language Learners lack native like proficiencies due to the over emphases on grammar.  In order for content language education to work, content cannsot supersede language goals.  Language functions such as grammar, vocabulary, and writing are taught alongside content in a way that makes sense for that topic. 

 

Track 2

Strategies of hedging in science writing

Mare-Anne Laane, mareanne.laanettu.ee

TallinnUniversity of Technology, Estonia

The talk reviews studies of hedging in science writing, its functions and main means of expression. Focus is on research articles and theses in the field of engineering. As science writing always carries the individual’s point of view, some language devices for expressing hedging of different types need examination. The aim is to show how writers can present their claims cautiously, accurately and modestly to meet science community’s expectations and gain acceptance to their statements. Hyland distinguishes two main types of hedges: lexical and strategic. Density of hedges in research articles and theses is different. According to Koutsantoni, theses writers use more strategic hedges (20 %) than research article writers (14%). Different techniques of hedging often referred to as modality include the following categories: modal, performative, cognitive, deductive, sensory verbs, and verbs for acquiring evidence; epistemic adverbs; epistemic adjectives; and epistemic nouns. Strategic hedges may be divided into five categories: limitations of method, limitations of the scope of the paper, limited knowledge, agreement with other research, and limitations of the study. In electronics and electrical engineering,  most commonly used strategic hedges are limitations of study (testability) and limitations of method. Thus, hedging is a significant resource with a variety of realizations that the writers of articles and theses have to acquire to confirm their professional persona and to assist in the acceptance of their claims. 

 

Parallel Sessions 13:30-14:30

Track 1

Domain loss in LSP domains and gaps in the mental lexicon: Challenges for domain experts and alienation and exclusion of non-domain experts

Birthe Mousten, bmoexpo-com.dk

Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark

There is an increased request that experts in different domains use English as their primary language of communication—for instance at conferences and courses, in magazines and in textbooks. The increased volume of literature in English has a rub-off effect on the different domain experts’ terminology in their own native languages. As a consequence, new terms may not be developed in different languages, but the English “loan words” are adopted for use. The consequences are manifold, for example: In the first place, it becomes increasingly difficult for non-native English-speaking domain experts to keep track of new terminology, because the terminology set does not naturally expand on the existing mental lexicon. For the same reason, secondly, it becomes increasingly difficult for new, non-native communicators to enter the different domains in research and technology. Thirdly, domain loss in a language widens the gap between domain specialists and their communication with non-specialists, and among other consequences it could finally be mentioned that it is a challenge to keep track of and build up the terminology sets to be used in communication in non-English-language communities.

Based on different analyses, my presentation aims at showing the consequences of domain loss for the professional communities. For this purpose, examples and analyses of English as an alienating and excluding factor in experts’ communication with their surrounding communities will be discussed.

Development of terminology in the field of mechanical engineering

Priit Kulu

Jakob Kübarsepp

Mart Saarna, mart.saarnattu.ee

Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Materials Engineering

Terminology in the field of mechanical engineering has been systematically developed at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Tallinn University of Technology for approximately twenty years. Numerous terminology brochures, dictionaries, textbooks and study materials have been published and e-courses established. While defining the existing terms and creating new ones, study needs, importance of terminology in writing original textbooks as well as conducting multilingual studies have been considered. Terminology in important fields of science has been created considering the needs of scientific work (doctoral thesis and extended summaries in Estonian, summaries of articles etc.). Development and creation of new terms has been based on three languages, Estonian, English and Russian, since studies at the Tallinn University of Technology are conducted in these languages. Development of terminology is based on research by workgroups (engineering materials, materials processing, properties and testing) and initiators. As an outcome, new terminology dictionaries, handbooks and original textbooks have been published.

 

Track 2

To the question of Mordovian terminology

N. V. Butylov, butylovnvrambler.ru

Saransk, Russia

The goal of development, elaboration and adoption of terminology is one of the most important parts of the national language for functioning of the Mordovian languages as official.  During the process of its creation, it is necessary to display maximal sensitiveness and take into account specific conditions of the Mordovian languages (Moksha and Erzya) development. You should avoid two possible variants of development of events when you elaborate terminology: 1) you must not use too many Russian words of national literary language, which are used in the forms of the Russian language; 2) you are not allowed to create new notions from words of the Mordovian language.

How matters stand with terminology of the Mordovian language (Moksha and Erzya) at the present stage. The process of terminology is an interrupted process, which began in the 20-30th and continued in early 90th. At present the Mordovian languages are exclaimed as the official languages. But unfortunately, we are not ready to it now. We want to expand spheres of usage of the Mordovian languages, but we have not got determined official speech styles, we have not got our own equivalents to the Russian terms. Texts and words are demanded for these styles.

Now, creating new terminology, we can use methods and terms of the 20-30th of the XXth century, and also methodology of our ancestors- Hungarians, Finns and Estonians (serman parga; ineved; insineved; ved kirga; moda kirgi). Terms, which were created in the 20-30th of the XXth century, are not all preserved. Only those terms preserved whose choice was successful.The work of creation of political, juridical and scientific and technical terminology is very weak and poor in Mordovia. Nevertheless the work goes on. N.S. Alyamkin and Yu. K. Vorobyov are involved in social and political terminology. Linguistic terminology is almost created by G. Zaytz, Shiriminaina, Kerestesh, Butylov, Polyakov, Kelina, Buzakova.

International terminology. Three variants are possible here:

  1. Terms borrowing and their execution according to the laws of the Mordovian language.
  2. Creation of new translated Mordovian terms.
  3. Adoption of the existed international terminology.

Of course, terminological committee is necessary for terminology creation. It depends on us how it will work. Here must be involved eager specialists, not indifferent.

Linguistic corpora in English teaching at a technical university

Rafał Bzdak, r.bzdakpoczta.fm

Warsaw University, Poland

Linguistic corpora have been used in research since the beginning of 20th century. Initially, its use was restricted due to inadequate processing capacity of researchers. Modern developments in computer technology yielded two important improvements. Firstly, increased processing capability enabled analysis of vast amounts of linguistic data. Secondly, relatively easy access to computers allows for linguistic inquiry in school or university computer labs equipped with even moderately modern computers. The article presents ways to employ linguistic research techniques during both General English and ESP lessons. Adoption of corpora in the classroom serves two important purposes. Firstly, it encourages students to perform linguistic analyses and make their own linguistic discoveries, which results in bigger autonomy.. Secondly, it directs learners’ attention to selected elements of a foreign language (e.g. morpho-syntactic or semantic idiosyncrasies, which tend to be particularly difficult in foreign language acquisition) and raises their linguistic awareness. Additionally, this type of tasks renders form-focused learning more attractive to students.

Having shortly outlined history of corpora linguistic and rules of corpora design, the author will present selected on-line and off-line corpora and concordancers. This will be followed by a presentation of a technical corpus compiled by the author. Next, methodical issues of corpora-based tasks will be discussed. Finally, examples of data-driven learning tasks which were actually performed in an LSP class together with students’ evaluation of such classes will be presented.

Roundtable Discussion 15:00-15:50

English for any purpose? Re-examining learning, teaching and LSP in the 21st Century

Jennifer Uhler, University of Tartu, Estonia jenniferuhlergmail.com

Jen MacArthur, University of Vaasa, Finland jmcauwasa.fi

Djuddah Leijen, University of Tartu, Estonia djuddah.leijenut.ee

In this roundtable discussion, three English language teachers will debate the value of ESP in higher education today. After sharing their experiences teaching at the tertiary level – teaching advanced learners in various specializations, including business English, English for university professors, academic writing and oral skills, among other specialized areas of language learning – the participants will present arguments that question the efficacy and repercussions of teaching only ESP and whether or not ESP prepares learners well for their future learning and professional paths in the 21st century. Finally, the presenters will invite participants to share in the conversation about the relevance of learning language through general and specific approaches.

 

Friday, June 3

Plenary Session 10:00-11:00

Birthe Mousten, bmoexpo-com.dk

Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences

Arhus University, Denmark

LSP Mediators Bridging the Science-to-Public Encounter

The encounter between scientists and the public is multifaceted, but often diverse mediators are involved, be they journalists, science PR people or the more invisible LSP professionals. In most of the world, LSP professionals are needed to mediate new science results to an English lingua-franca science community, an English lingua-franca non-science community or to a local non-English community. This mediation covers a range of professional fields, including lexicography and terminology management, database management, knowledge management, translation and localization, revising and editing as work tools, etc. In a wider sense, closing the gap between source communicator/source text and target audience is any LSP mediator’s primary job. The development of LSP as a separate discipline and science runs parallel to the increasing complexity and volume of scientific information. The LSP community needs to make itself visible in an over-communicated world. My main question here is whether the LSP community has the innovative approaches needed to take on the challenge as mediators. Is LSP innovative enough when it comes to working with the communicative areas of web pages, facebook, twitter, multimedia choices, etc.? Is the LSP community prepared to bridge the science-to-public communication gap - innovatively. Failing to mediate both the results of the science fields on which LSP rests and staying up-to-date professionally in the LSP fields as such will endanger the LSP community’s chances of gaining respect, becoming visible, gaining a solid basis for work and in turn gaining funding in the future.

Parallel Sessions 11:30-12:30

Track 1

What current trends in LSP may tell us about its future

Irina Petrova, nc0444gmail.com

Virumaa College of Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia

The notion of language for specific purposes has been around for quite a while and has unsurprisingly evolved since its emergence around 1960-s when it was concerned with the analysis of structures in specialized texts. Today it seems that the term has acquired a more pragmatic meaning and focuses on specific needs of the learners rather than specific language. The discipline itself has grown a lot, and as Hewings (2010) notes in his overview of articles in the journal English for Specific Purposes starting from year 1980 research tendences the field have changed too. The current talk will represent a summary of predictions about the future of LSP including the presenter’s own views with reference to the situation in Estonia.

Language of science: Speciality-centred or supradisciplinary?

Peep Nemvalts, Peep.Nemvaltstlu.ee

Tallinn University, Estonia

As our world of science is rapidly changing and globalising, it is important to express one’s ideas and to describe discoveries in a way which is preferably understood by the fellow researchers in the same field. However, at many circumstances it is useful or necessary to communicate results of scientific research for the broader society.

  1. This paper will, firstly, take a look at the interconnections between LSP and academic language, and how these are related to the general language – as it seems in Estonian. Some of the questions to be asked are:
    • Is every special language scientific language?
    • If and how academic language, LSP and technical language should be differentiated?
    • What are the relations between special languages and terminology?
    • How is LSP influenced by general language and vice versa?
  2. Acting and communicating within every field of knowledge through different native languages is merely useful: “.. we can only access world scientific knowledge through the existing languages and their structures, which provides a perspective of diversity to the dynamics of world knowledge development (Ehlich 2001).” (Hamel 2007)

How does the impact of English, considered as a global language of communication and science, manifest in a language spoken by a minor number of people, like Estonian? Does Estonian as LSP benefits from or suffers for this impact? Striving for exactness of academic Estonian, how should we handle changes in the structure of Estonian, like

  • broadening use of allative forms instead of other forms of government structures, e.g. sarnane sellele pro sellega (comitative, ’similar to’),
  • increasing amount of postpositive attributes instead of preposed attributes in genitive,
  • preferring passive clauses with agent adverbial instead of active clauses with subject?
  • Also, this paper will present opinions of participants of courses in academic language about the state of academic Estonian.

References:

Hamel, Rainer Enrique 2007. The dominance of English in the international scientific periodical literature and the future of language use in science. – Linguistic inequality in scientific communication today. Edited by Augusto Carli, Ulrich Ammon. AILA Review, Vol. 20, pp. 53–71.

Kasik, Reet & Erelt, Mati &  Erelt, Tiiu 2007. Eesti keele väljendusõpetus kõrgkoolidele. Toimetanud Tiiu Erelt. Tartu.

Nemvalts, Peep 2009. Kõrgharituks selges eesti keeles. (Arvustus: Kasik, Reet & Erelt, Mati &  Erelt, Tiiu 2007. Eesti keele väljendusõpetus kõrgkoolidele. Toimetanud Tiiu Erelt. Tartu. 181 lk.) – Keel ja Kirjandus 2009, nr 11, lk 869-872.

 

Track 2

How to make everyone (quite) happy with their terminology training

Elena Chiocchetti, elena.chiocchettieurac.edu

Natascia Ralli, natascia.rallieurac.edu

Institute for Specialised Communication and Multilingualism European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC), Italy

Specialised communication relies on specific personal abilities, e.g. the skill of writing clearly and correctly in the native language, the use of correct terminology, the ability for selecting and consulting relevant information sources, a good familiarity with professional tools and working methodologies, etc.

Besides law dictionary and termbase production, the activities of the Institute for Specialised Communication and Multilingualism concentrate on teaching and training terminology theory and practice. The target groups range from university students in different areas to language professionals (translators, interpreters) and from legal experts (lawyers, public employees) to minorities that need to create specialised neologisms in their language. From this comes the need to adapt the theoretical framework and working methodology of each training session to the needs of different target groups. It also calls for a serious reflection on how to convey the principles of terminology on the basis of the audience’s background knowledge and practical requirements.

The skills to be taught and trained should in fact not be limited to term selection or the systematisation of knowledge, but rather ought to involve related disciplines (e.g. how to use specialised terminology, strategies for selecting and evaluating information sources, TMS, etc.) that are essential for daily work practice.

This article aims at illustrating the different strategies adopted to convey theoretical and practical knowledge for terminology work and all related disciplines, in order to provide the participants enough information to allow them to choose the strategies and tools that are best suited to their activities and needs.

Interactive English language lessons for improving professional terminology acquisition in vocational education

Ieva Margevica, ievamlanet.lv

Eriks Grinbergs, grinbergs.eriksgmail.com

Laila Ozolina, lailaltg.lv

Latvia

Bruges Communiqué on enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training (2010) emphasizes that countries should promote opportunities for language learning for both learners and teachers in Vocational Education and Training (VET), and the provision of language training adapted to the specific needs of VET, with a special emphasis on the importance of foreign languages for cross-border cooperation in VET and international mobility. Today's global economy requires work-specific language that includes professional terminology, professional jargons for effective delivery of professional services and for successful communication and participation (inclusion) in the workplace. It should be mentioned that current methods of instruction most commonly used today in VET in Latvia focus primarily on English language while secondarily embedding professional terminology acquisition in the lessons. The research was carried out in order to find out how interactive teaching methods can improve professional terminology acquisition in VET. As a qualitative research method was chosen the case study on application of the interactive teaching methods for terminology acquisition in the woodworking speciality group of the Riga State Technical School. The instruments of data collection were observation notes of the learners’ activity during the lessons in order to assess their level of participation and involvement in interactivity; interviews with the teachers to elicit experienced suggestions for interactive teaching and learning. As a result of the research findings, the recommendations for enhancement of the Professional terminology acquisition in the Riga State Technical School will be drawn.

Parallel Sessions 14:30-15:30

Track 1

Integrating CLIL into the course of business English

Natalja Zagura, natalja.zaguraut.ee

University of Tartu, Estonia

The aim of the present paper is to introduce my experience of integrating CLIL into the course of Business English for grade 12 (18-19 year-olds). Focusing on the project of writing a business plan, the presentation will demonstrate how in addition to teaching LSP, it is also possible to contribute to the development of students’ general knowledge and practical skills.

The paper first focuses on the main aims and characteristics of a business plan, the rationale for suggesting such an assignment and the main difficulties and problems that students often experience while working on it. After that, the main stages in the preparation, development and presentation of the business plan are discussed - such division of a project into a number of stages/assignments is essential for the students to be motivated and work on the project continuously instead of completing everything at the last possible moment. The presentation will also touch upon such aspects of motivating and supporting students as making clear requirements and guidelines available to them, providing models, sources and extra materials to those interested, making the assessment procedure transparent and giving individual feedback at several stages of the project. Eventually, it is pointed out which skills students are likely to develop as a result of writing and presenting a business plan.

This presentation might be of interest not only to the teachers of Business English but also to those willing to contribute to development of their students’ skills through similar writing projects, not necessarily a business plan.

Track 2

Cognitive processes in content-mediated language instruction

Malgorzata Forys, m.forysstudent.uw.edu.pl

University of Warsaw, Poland

Nowadays, the demarcation between CLIL and LSP generates a great deal of heated debate, with some researchers pointing to the crucial differences between both approaches. It would appear, however, that especially in the context of tertiary education and vocational training the features and goals of both frameworks largely coincide. Above all, LSP and CLIL arise from needs analysis and rely on the content matter belonging to selected disciplines and occupations. For these and other reasons, it could be argued that LSP and CLIL teachers can draw from each other’s experience and methodological solutions.

Therefore, in my contribution I would like to consider a range of cognitive processes which come into play in the LSP or CLIL classroom and to shed light on the possible ways of boosting the potential of content-driven language instruction. The issues which will be the main focus of the presentation encompass: interaction between linguistic and conceptual knowledge, motivational factors as well as relevant insights from brain-based education. It appears that these mechanisms lie at the heart of acquiring content-specific language skills and thus, getting a better understanding of them may greatly facilitate the effectiveness of any CLIL or LSP course. Moreover, to substantiate the claim that well-managed content-mediated language instruction is a powerful tool in modern education I will briefly present the highly promising outcomes of a short CLIL course in neuropsychology.

Students’ needs analysis for ESP course design at Latvia University of Agriculture

Ieva Knope, knopeievainbox.lv

Inese Ozola, inese.ozolallu.lv

Latvia University of Agriculture

The aim of the paper is to design a model of the ESP course for students of agriculture sciences on the basis of the analysis of students’ needs while studying English for Specific Purposes (ESP) at the Latvia University of Agriculture. The overall objective of the special foreign language programme for students of agriculture specialities is to develop ESP competence consisting of communicative, intercultural and professional activity competence (Luka, 2008). The link should be provided between classroom processes and real-world communication processes. Within the study programme of foreign languages the student at the tertiary level improves his/her language skills acquired during the secondary school and gains new skills and knowledge necessary for the world of work.

The needs analysis was conducted at three levels: at the students’ level, at the level of recent university graduates and at the level of experts consisting of foreign language lecturers. The analysis resulted in the design of the ESP course model comprising elements of General English, Academic English, Business English and the specific terminology.

Roundtable Discussion 15:30-16:30

Ann Johns, San Diego State University, USA

Irina Koksharova, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia

Presentation of EDICC 16:30-17:00

Irina Koksharova

Estonian University of Life Sciences

University of Tartu, Estonia

Language Centre
Fr.R.Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia, phone +372 731 3162, e-mail: ylle.sihveremu.ee